Andrology

Figure 1. Solid Surface Vitrification (A) and slow cooling equipment (B) (1). THE HISTORY OF SPERM CRYOPRESERVATION Human semen cryopreservation has a long history that begins at the end of the nineteenth century. After prior observations on sperm surviving cooling at very low temperatures (-150º C) (2), Mantegazza (1866) first suggested the idea of human sperm banks (3). Years later, Mantegazza proved it was possible to extend human sperm lifespan up to four days by cooling at moderate sub-zero temperatures…

This technique, first proposed in 1980 by Evenson and coauthors (23), uses flow cytometry to measure sperm DNA integrity. It tests the vulnerability of DNA to acid-induced denaturation by exposure to acridine orange media (AO) (24). AO binds to both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA, but fluoresces in different colour, being red or green, respectively.

Figure 1. Aniline blue-stained human sperm bound to a surface coated with hyaluronic acid. Modified form [1]. See Sperm selection for fertilization (I). INTRODUCTION In assisted laboratories, semen samples are usually obtained after masturbation and the ejaculate is collected into a container. However, semen recovered from non-spermicidal condoms can be of higher quality because of the time producing the sample influences in the amount of seminal emission before ejaculation (2). Moreover, according to the World Health Organization criteria, laboratory manual…

Figure 1. Close micrograph of a segment of the mid-piece of a mammalian spermatozoon, showing the helicoidally disposed of mitochondria. (A) Cross section. (B) The surface of the plasma membrane. [modified from (1)]. INTRODUCTION Fertility treatments are more and more common in our days, reason why it is important to perform these procedures accurately resembling in vivo conditions. Additionally, the male factor may oftentimes be underrated, and yet it is 50% of the treatment. The following text aims to establish…